Отправлено: 09.05.07 23:17. Заголовок: База немецких подлодок на земле Франца Иосифа (?)
В майском журнале "Охота и рыбалка XXI век ( он-лайн версия http://www.mk.ru/blogs/idmk/2007/05/01/HuntnFishing/241412/ ) прочитал: "Во время Второй мировой войны на Земле Франца-Иосифа немецкие метеорологи, проводившие здесь операцию «Кладоискатель», устроили охоту на белого медведя. Сырое мясо полярного хищника пользовалось у немцев повышенным спросом. Но вскоре сам охотник, а через десять дней и остальные участники «Кладоискателя» были поражены этой страшной болезнью. Немцам пришлось эвакуировать людей с этой базы."
А поиском уже натолкнулся на статью в "Независимой газете" ( http://nvo.ng.ru/printed/1611 ): "Но куда же возвращалась "U-639" после выполнения своего задания? До Норвегии было далеко. Только после войны была раскрыта тайна островов архипелага Земли Франца-Иосифа, который фашисты использовали "на всю катушку".
Об этом и сейчас трудно найти какие-то подробные материалы, за исключением упоминаний у некоторых авторов. Из них вырисовывается следующая картина. Для обеспечения действий своих подводных лодок, проникавших в Карское море, в 1942 г. противник оборудовал в проливе Кембридж, на побережье острова Земля Александры (архипелаг Земля Франца-Иосифа), тайную полярную станцию, которая просуществовала до мая 1944 года. На этой тайной базе фашистские подводные лодки, действовавшие в Карском море, заряжали аккумуляторы, ремонтировались, экипажи их отдыхали и перед выходом в море получали последние разведывательные данные об обстановке.
Писатель-маринист и историк Виталий Гузанов рассказывал мне, что один из его друзей, командир тральщика, сам ходил на эту "базу", видел ее собственными глазами и восхищался немецким "орднунгом" (порядком). База располагалась в гроте, куда одновременно могли заходить две подлодки. У одного причала был торпедный и минный арсенал, у другого - ремонтные мастерские. Сверху все выглядело как совершенно заурядное, ничем не примечательное место. Вот почему авиация и не могла ничего обнаружить. Все грузы туда доставлялись, по-видимому, "дойными коровами" - специальный немецкий термин для транспортных подлодок. "
1. Где бы подробнее почитать об этой базе? 2. Где бы подробнее почитать об операции "Кладоискатель" и подобным метеорологическим операциям?
The manned weather station destined for Alexandra-Land (о-в в составе Земли Франца-Иосифа - прим. М.М.) was prepared under the code-name «SCHATZGRABER (treasure hunter)» in summer 1943. Using a former fishing vessel as transport ship and a U-boat as escort, the weather party of ten men, consisting of a meteorologist as party leader, meteorological assistants, radio operators and general duty assistants, the expedition started from Tromso in Northern Norway on 19 September 1943 and reached Cambridge Bay of Alexandra-Land on 22 September after an uneventful passage. Disemba.rking of the weather party and the labour crew of the ship with all the equipment and provisions, as well as the construction material for the station house grew worse due to faults of the ship and the boats, not at least by the ice on the beach and later in the bay. Loss of important papers, and damage of some equipment, at last the loss of a motor boat impeded the construction of the station and the disposition of depots to some extent. The U-boat attempted to circumnavigate the island from east to west to reconnoitre the coast meanwhile. Leaving the bay on 25 September, the passage between Alexandra-Land and Prince-George-Land was blocked by ice, and to the west fog and mist prevented to reach the northern coast from the west, so the U-boat had to return to the bay, in time to assist the work on the station, as the ice border approached, the escape route.
On 30 September both vessels left the bay, the weather party still had to finish the construction of the house and to store the provisions suitably both on the house and at some distance as a safety measure,
The station was situated about 500 meters from shore at a height of 30 meters above: sea level, not visible from the sea.
Emergency depots were situated at a distance of about 5 kilometers from the station, where provisions, tents, and a small radio station were stored resembling a small hut. Meteorological observations were started. on 15 October, and from 1 November the synoptic weather observations, including radio-sonde ascents were transmitted to the weather office at Tromso.
The polar night lasted from 9 Novemiber 1943 to 2 February 1944, and as soon as daylight and weather permitted to leave the station area, preparations were stated to establish an emergency station at Mys Nimrod, that at last contained a complete radio station, provisions for two weeks, clothing, sleeping-bags, ftiel for heating, all that carried on the back by two or three men on every excursion.
In spring the observations were improved, in particular the radio-sonde ascents, and «in summa» from November 1943 to July 1944 the station transmitted 739 synoptic weather reports, 125 radio-sonde ascents and, in spring, 39 pilot balloon ascents.
As some equipment was lost at the landing in September 1943, supply flights should replace the losses still in 1943, but the weather conditions were than unsuitable, so these flights were postponed to spring 1944.
In May a four-engined Focke-Wulf «Condor", flown by an experienced pilot, Oblt. Stahnke, dropped in two flights the needed euipment and provisions to the station, and reconnoitred the surroundings in view of landing there for further supplies or the planned evacuation in summer.
At the same time the last transport trip to the depot at Mys Nimrod was under way, when the station crew shot a polar bear to get some fresh meat, after a long winter fed from canned provisions.
Soon after eating the raw meat, some men became sick, but none suspected a serious illness until most of the crew suffered from serious pain with high fever. When the transport group from Mys Nimrod returned to the station in June, they alarmed the command and the weather office at Tromso, where the reported symptoms of the sickness were investigated and trichinosis was diagnosed.
The Navy Command arranged immediately a succour flight to Alex- andra-Land in cooperation with the Luftwaffe Command with a four- engined Focke-Wulf «Condor" long-range aircraft with a physician with all necessary sanitary equipment on board, who had to jump with parachute to the station and to aid the sick men.
The aircraft took off from Banak on 7 July and reached the station after 6 hours., but instead of ordering the physician to jump by parachute to the station, the pilot, once again ObIt.Stahnke, attempted to land at a field he had exploited on his previous supply flights. All went well, but at last one main wheel collapsed, the plane could no more take-off again in that state.
An emergency call to Banak initiated an order of the Command to a giant six-engined Blohm & Voss flying boat, ready as stand-by at Bille-Fjord, to fly to Alexandra-Land and drop there the needed spare wheel and tools to the stranded aircraft, its crew declared to be able to replace the damaged wheel for the return flight.
Meanwhile the physician treated the sick and prepared them for the evacuation flight.
The leader of the weather party was the most serious sick man, some time unconscious or mad, but three members of the party were able to walk and to assist in the treatment, while the aircrew repaired their plane with the spare wheel dropped by the flying boat on 9 July.
On 10 July the repair work was finished, and the aircrew had now to carry the sick over the distance of several kilometers from the station to the aircraft. The leader of the weather party had to be fastened to his place in the aircraft to avoid any uncontrollable action of him caused by his madness, that might endanger the plane and all aboard.
On 10 July 1944, at 21.00 hours, ObIt.Stahnke managed to lift the aircraft from the ground in the last moment after an hazardous taxy run over the stony, but also soft ground, and the aircraft reached uneventfully Banak after a 5-hour flight.
Now it was planned to re-occupy that station in fall 1944 with a release party, but failures of other weather parties destined for Greenland forced to abandon the re-occupation of the station on Alexandra-Land.
In fall 1944 the U-boat U-387, that had escorted the «SCHATZGRA- BER» party outward-bound, and now familiar with the conditions in the area, was ordered to go to Alexandra-Land to remove the most important equipnment and the provisions, and to set up an automatic station of the W.F.L.type there.
«U 387» left Narvik on 9 October and steered via Tromso to Alexandra-Land. About eighty nautical miles from Cambridge Sund the ice situation became worse and it was decided to abandon the mission to Alexandra-Land and to set up the automatic station on Nowaja Zemlya as second choice for that task. Than the course was changed and on 15 October a position north of Proliv Inostrantseva was reached, where at Mys Medvejej on an ice-free spit the station should be erected. Even a melting ice belt off the beach impeded the disembarking by rubber boats, the U-boat could approach the shore very closely, so the containers of the station could be landed without serious difficulties.
Within eight hours the station was assembled completely and ready for operation. U-387 returned to its base, the mission was accomplished. With that mission ended the German meteorological operations in the Barents Sea and on Soviet territories and Soviet-ruled sea in the Arctic. Most of the bases in Northern Norway , that served well more
than four years for the past operations, were abandoned in late fall 1944, the lack of fuel restricted the hitherto routine meteorological flights, now carried out on urgent request only, and the meteorological services were reduced drastically.
On the islands of Svalbard only still operated German weather stations, the most famous station «HAUDEGEN» on North-East-Land, and three small manned stations «LANDVIK» and «TAAGET» on Sorkapp-Land of Spitsbergen and on Bear Island respectively., and «HELHUS» on Hopen Island.
While the only survivor of the «TAAGET» station was rescued still in April 1945 by a U-boat, the weather parties of the other stations ceased their duty with the end of the war and were picked up by Norwegian vessels late in summer 1945.
The remains of the German meteorological activities in the Soviet Arctic were dis-covered several years after 1945, devastated or destroyed by weather, snow and/or polar bears, and at last, the mine fields around the station «SCHATZGRABER>> on Alexandra-Land were cleared in summer 1990, when the Norwegian Polar historian Susan Barr handed over a map of the minefields to the Russian authorities in the North, that was drawn by Rudolf Garbaty, a member of «SCHATZGRABER>>, in 1944, and sent to Mrs.Barr by the author of that lecture.
On other places in the Arctic, in particular on Svalbard, still existing relics of German weather stations were salvaged in 1984 and 1985 by the Norwegian authorities with the author as consultant, and, restored perfectly, found their way, to the Svalbard Museum at Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, and to Forsvarsmuseet at Oslo.
The chapter of German moteorological operations in the Arctic is now closed, their history and the history of Allied meteorological operations in the Arctic are the object of a book by the author due for publication in fall this year.
Источник: Selinger F. (Ulm, Germany) Meteorological operations in the Arctic 1940-1945.// Война в Арктике (1939-1945 гг.). Архангельск, 2001. с. 148-153.
Отправлено: 06.08.10 11:22. Заголовок: У Морисона в "Би..
У Морисона в "Битве за Атлантику" читаем:
Многочисленные потери, которые несли конвои, следовавшие южнее Гренландии, а также бой с линкором «Bismarck» в мае 1941 г. свидетельствовали о стратегическом значении Гренландии и, по всей вероятности, ускорили официальную организацию с 1 июля гренландского патруля.Командир этого соединения Айсберг Смит, находившийся на катере «Northland», получил приказ от начальника морских операций выполнить целый ряд различных функций... ... Все эти функции береговая охрана США выпол- няла с образцовой добросовестностью и выносливостью на всем протяжении войны. Командир соединения Смит даже изобрел но- вые методы патрулирования. Так, например, была организована часть, патрулировавшая район северо-восточного побережья Грен- ландии на собаках в упряжках. 11 сентября 1941 г. была обнару- жена норвежская шхуна «Buskoe», в составе команды которой находился член гестапо. Шхуна была задержана катером «Northland» и отправлена в Бостон.
Член гестапо на норвежской шхуне у побережья Гренландии? Что это - кривой перевод или это действительно было так?
Отправлено: 06.08.10 13:01. Заголовок: Barrett пишет: Что ..
Что это - кривой перевод или это действительно было так?
Перевод верный. А вот что было на самом деле.
On 11 September, after the destroyer Greer was attacked while on patrol off Iceland, President Roosevelt issued his "shoot on sight" order to U.S. Naval forces. The same day, by Executive Order, portions of the Coast Guard began operating as part of the Navy.
The day following the Presidential "shoot on sight" warning, Commander Smith, in the cutter North Star, acting on a tip from a dog-team patrol, sent the Northland to investigate a fishing vessel which had reportedly landed a party in a fjord. The Northland, a 2,065 ton cruising cutter, had been fitted with depth charges and a reconnaissance seaplane for arctic duty. The skipper of the Northland, Commander Carl C. von Paulsen followed the vessel into McKenzie Bay and sent a boarding team over for inspection. The Coast Guardsmen found twenty-seven persons on the Norwegian sealer identified as the Buskoe. At this stage of the war, Norwegians were considered suspicious and were routinely stopped and questioned by the Coast Guard since Germany had invaded Norway in April.
The Danish hunters and Norwegian trappers on board all claimed to be on a fishing and hunting expedition. The boarding party brought the master of the Norwegian fishing trawler Buskoe back to the Northland for questioning. Returning to the Buskoe the Coast Guard boarding team found that the vessel was equipped with a radio transmitter and receiver, but also had a portable receiver and transmitter--proof that the ship was servicing German radio stations. More intense questioning revealed that some men with radio equipment had been dropped off earlier several hundred miles from their present position.
After placing a prize crew on board the Buskoe, Commander von Paulsen got the Northland underway and went in search of the radio base. After steaming for twenty-four hours the Northland anchored in a fjord about five miles from the suspected location of the radio site. A landing party took a small boat to within a mile of the station and then traversed over the icy terrain in total darkness. Finding a shack, the Coast Guardsmen surrounded it and then Lieutenant Leroy McCluskey kicked in the door. Rushing in, the Coast Guard arctic commandos captured three Norwegians, one under German orders, their radio gear, confidential instructions and codes. The men were taken into custody as illegal immigrants since the United States had not declared war on Germany.
Отправлено: 17.08.15 22:53. Заголовок: Разве можно объяснит..
Разве можно объяснить логикой бред сумасшедшего или, желающего сомнительной славы, журналиста? Все байки на эту тему, в основном, их рук дело. У них и Гитлер в Аргентину сбежал и шпион "Ройал Оук" потопил. Так что им "вырубить" сооружения в скалах в Арктике раз плюнуть.